Cancer and cardiovascular disease are the two largest health burdens in Australia, representing more than a third of recurrent healthcare expenditure. More than one in three Australians will discover they have cancer by the age of 75 and the incidence is increasing across all cancer types. Although Australia has one of the highest survival rates in the world, cancer is the largest contributor to disease and injury in Australia and the second most common cause of death.
About 50% of cancer patients require radiotherapy at least once for the cure or palliation of their cancer, however only one in three receives essential treatment because of lack of convenient access to treatment facilities and lack of understanding of appropriate treatment options regarding radiotherapy.
Radiotherapy, which has experienced rapid technological advancements in the past couple of decades, can now cure some cancers and can also have a greater impact on stopping cancer cells reproducing compared to chemotherapy. In many instances combining treatment modalities provides for the best outcomes.
Modern radiotherapy equipment such as linear accelerators can reduce the time the patient spends on the treatment couch up to 50%. Accuracy is sub-millimetre, improving outcomes and reducing unwanted dose to surrounding organs and healthy tissue.
WHAT IS CANCER?
Cancer is a generic name given to a group of diseases that involve uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells. This usually results in the area growing in size, affecting the original and adjacent organs and often results in the spread of the cancer to other sites of the body.
Some growths (tumours) are benign while others are malignant. Cancers are malignant growths. Benign tumours do not spread but they may cause a lump or put pressure on parts of the body near the tumour. They are often cured by surgical removal. Occasionally, radiation treatment may be given to contain the area of the tumour or reduce the risk of the tumour coming back.
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY TUMORS
Malignant tumours (cancer) are usually more active then benign tumours and tend to spread and invade other tissues. The original cancer site is called the primary tumour. If the cancer spreads to other organs or tissues, the cancerous areas are known as secondary tumours.
Under the microscope, secondary cancers usually appear the same as the cells at the primary site, even though they appear elsewhere in the body. Patients sometimes ask us about a family member or friend who had "liver cancer" after their (for example) lung cancer. In fact, they are one and the same. The difference is the site where the cancer is found but the cell of origin is the same.
Malignant tumours may be "solid" or "liquid". "Liquid" cancers are those involving the blood, such as leukaemia. Solid tumours may arise from any organ. In Australia, the most common cancers are breast cancer, bowel cancer, and melanoma (skin cancer) in females. In males, prostate cancer is the most common, followed by bowel cancer then melanoma (skin cancer).
All cancers have a tendency to behave in certain fashions - in terms of growth rates, organs where they tend to spread as secondary cancers, and response to treatment. All treatment programs are customised to the individual patient's needs.
Treatment depends on a number of factors, such as:
1. The cell and the type of organ in which the tumour is located
2. The rate of growth
3. The staging (a process in which doctors classify the size, site and spread of a tumour)
4. The patient's own characteristics, such as age, general health, and their own personal desires.
Treatment often involves a combination of therapies, such as surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, diet care, and other supportive measures.